torek, 19. november 2013

Transport in Ljubljana

Ljubljana Jože Pučnik Airport (IATA code LJU), located 26 kilometers (16 mi) northwest of the city, has flights to numerous European destinations. Among the companies that fly from there are Adria AirwaysAir FranceeasyJetFinnairJob AirMontenegro AirlinesWizz Air and Turkish Airlines. The destinations are mainly European. This airport has superseded the original Ljubljana airport, in operation from 1933 until 1963. It was located in the Municipality of Polje (nowadays the Moste District), on a plain between Ljubljanica and Sava next to the railroad in Moste. There was a military airport in Šiška from 1918 until 1929.

In the Ljubljana Rail Hub, the Pan-European railway corridors V (the fastest link between the North Adriatic, and Central and Eastern Europe) and X (linking Central Europe with the Balkans) and the main European lines (E 65, E 69, E 70) intersect. All international transit trains in Slovenia drive through the Ljubljana hub, and all international passenger trains stop there. The area of Ljubljana has six passenger stations and nine stops. For passengers, the Slovenian Railways company offers the possibility to buy a daily or monthly city pass that can be used to travel between them. The Ljubljana railway station is the central station of the hub. The Ljubljana Moste Railway Station is the largest Slovenian railway dispatching place. The Ljubljana Zalog Railway Station is the central Slovenian rail yard. There are a number of industrial rails in Ljubljana. At the end of 2006 the Ljubljana Castle funicular started to operate. The rail goes from Krek Square (Krekov trg) near the Ljubljana Central Market to Ljubljana Castle. It is especially popular among tourists. The full trip lasts 60 s.
Central railway station once. 
Ljubljana railway station today. Photo: Viktorija Rozman
Ljubljana is located where Slovenia's two main freeways intersect, connecting the freeway route from east to west, in line with Pan-European Corridor V, and the freeway in the north–south direction, in line with Pan-European Corridor X. The city is linked to the southwest by A1-E70 to the Italian cities of Trieste and Venice and the Croatian port of Rijeka.[172] To the north, A1-E57 leads to MariborGraz and Vienna. To the east, A2-E70links it with the Croatian capital Zagreb, from where one can go to Hungary or important cities of the former Yugoslavia, such as Belgrade. To the northwest, A2-E61 goes to the Austrian towns of Klagenfurt and Salzburg, making it an important entry point for northern European tourists. A toll sticker system has been in use on theLjubljana Ring Road since 1 July 2008. The center of the city is more difficult to access especially in the peak hours due to long arteries with traffic lights and a large number of daily commuters. The strict city center has been closed for motor traffic since September 2007, except for residents with permissions.

Public motorized road transport in Ljubljana was originally a tram system completed in 1901. It was in use from September 1901 until July 1928, when it was replaced with buses. Due to the financial loss of the bus traffic, the buses were abolished in 1930 and replaced with trams in 1931. In reached its final form with the length of 18.5 kilometers (11.5 mi) in 1940. In the post World War II era, the tram system was taken out of service, as it took up a lot of space in an era when automobiles were becoming increasingly more important. In Ljubljana, the tram's end came in December 1958. Soon after the last day of operation, the tracks were dismantled and the cars were transferred to Osijek and Subotica. Reintroduction of an actual tram system to Ljubljana has been proposed repeatedly in the 2000s.  
Tram (1901-1958) Tickets
It was once the tram in Ljubljana (1901-1958)
Traim in Slovenian stret.
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City bus
The Ljubljana Bus Station, the Ljubljana central bus hub, is located next to the Ljubljana railway station. The city bus network, run by the Ljubljana Passenger Transport (LPP)company, is Ljubljana's most widely used means of public transport. The fleet is relatively modern. The number of dedicated bus lines is limited, which can cause problem in peak hours when traffic becomes congested. Bus rides may be paid with the Urbana payment card (also used for the funicular) or with a mobile phone. Sometimes the buses are called trole (referring to trolley poles), harking back to the 1951–71 days when Ljubljana had trolleybus (trolejbus) service. There were five trolleybus lines in Ljubljana, until 1958 alongside the tram. There are numerous taxi companies in the city, but their services have been evaluated as bad.  
Another mean of public road transport in the city center is the Cavalier (Kavalir), an electric vehicle operated by LPP since May 2009. 

There are two such vehicles in Ljubljana. The ride is free and there are no stations because it can be stopped anywhere. It can carry up to five passengers; most of them are elderly people and tourist. The Cavalier drives in the car-free zone in the Ljubljana downtown. The first line links Čop StreetWolf Street and Hribar Embankment, whereas the second links Town SquareUpper Square, and Old Square. There is also a tractor with wagons decorated to look like a train for tourists in Ljubljana, linking Cyril and Methodius Square in the city center with Ljubljana Castle.

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There is a considerable amount of bicycle traffic in Ljubljana, especially in the warmer months of the year. It is also possible to rent a bike. Since May 2011, the Bicikelj (Official page), a self-service bicycle rental system offers the residents and visitors of Ljubljana 300 bicycles and 600 parking spots at 31 stations in the wider city center area. The daily number of rentals is around 2,500. There was a possibility to rent a bike even before the establishment of Bicikelj.
However, the conditions for cyclists in Ljubljana have been criticized as unfortunate to date. This refers to cycle lanes in poor condition and constructed in a way that motorized traffic is privileged. In contrast to other European capitals, on some of the main streets cycling is forbidden; for example, on part of Slovenska cesta (Slovene Street) and on a new link road on the Fabiani Bridge across the Ljubljanica River connecting Hrvatski trg and Roška cesta. There are also many one-way streets which therefore cannot be used as alternate routes so it is difficult to legally travel by bicycle through the city center. Through years, some prohibitions have been partially abolished by marking cycle lanes on the pavement.

The river transport on the Ljubljanica and the Sava was the main means of cargo transport to and from the city until the mid-19th century, when railroads were built. Today, the Ljubljanica is used by a number of tourist ships, with wharves under the Butchers' Bridge, at Fish Square, at Court Square, at Breg, at the Poljane Embankment, and elsewhere.
Ljubljana market, behind the Cathedral, on the right side Kresija
Photo: Viktorija Rozman