torek, 19. november 2013

Transport in Ljubljana

Ljubljana Jože Pučnik Airport (IATA code LJU), located 26 kilometers (16 mi) northwest of the city, has flights to numerous European destinations. Among the companies that fly from there are Adria AirwaysAir FranceeasyJetFinnairJob AirMontenegro AirlinesWizz Air and Turkish Airlines. The destinations are mainly European. This airport has superseded the original Ljubljana airport, in operation from 1933 until 1963. It was located in the Municipality of Polje (nowadays the Moste District), on a plain between Ljubljanica and Sava next to the railroad in Moste. There was a military airport in Šiška from 1918 until 1929.

In the Ljubljana Rail Hub, the Pan-European railway corridors V (the fastest link between the North Adriatic, and Central and Eastern Europe) and X (linking Central Europe with the Balkans) and the main European lines (E 65, E 69, E 70) intersect. All international transit trains in Slovenia drive through the Ljubljana hub, and all international passenger trains stop there. The area of Ljubljana has six passenger stations and nine stops. For passengers, the Slovenian Railways company offers the possibility to buy a daily or monthly city pass that can be used to travel between them. The Ljubljana railway station is the central station of the hub. The Ljubljana Moste Railway Station is the largest Slovenian railway dispatching place. The Ljubljana Zalog Railway Station is the central Slovenian rail yard. There are a number of industrial rails in Ljubljana. At the end of 2006 the Ljubljana Castle funicular started to operate. The rail goes from Krek Square (Krekov trg) near the Ljubljana Central Market to Ljubljana Castle. It is especially popular among tourists. The full trip lasts 60 s.
Central railway station once. 
Ljubljana railway station today. Photo: Viktorija Rozman
Ljubljana is located where Slovenia's two main freeways intersect, connecting the freeway route from east to west, in line with Pan-European Corridor V, and the freeway in the north–south direction, in line with Pan-European Corridor X. The city is linked to the southwest by A1-E70 to the Italian cities of Trieste and Venice and the Croatian port of Rijeka.[172] To the north, A1-E57 leads to MariborGraz and Vienna. To the east, A2-E70links it with the Croatian capital Zagreb, from where one can go to Hungary or important cities of the former Yugoslavia, such as Belgrade. To the northwest, A2-E61 goes to the Austrian towns of Klagenfurt and Salzburg, making it an important entry point for northern European tourists. A toll sticker system has been in use on theLjubljana Ring Road since 1 July 2008. The center of the city is more difficult to access especially in the peak hours due to long arteries with traffic lights and a large number of daily commuters. The strict city center has been closed for motor traffic since September 2007, except for residents with permissions.

Public motorized road transport in Ljubljana was originally a tram system completed in 1901. It was in use from September 1901 until July 1928, when it was replaced with buses. Due to the financial loss of the bus traffic, the buses were abolished in 1930 and replaced with trams in 1931. In reached its final form with the length of 18.5 kilometers (11.5 mi) in 1940. In the post World War II era, the tram system was taken out of service, as it took up a lot of space in an era when automobiles were becoming increasingly more important. In Ljubljana, the tram's end came in December 1958. Soon after the last day of operation, the tracks were dismantled and the cars were transferred to Osijek and Subotica. Reintroduction of an actual tram system to Ljubljana has been proposed repeatedly in the 2000s.  
Tram (1901-1958) Tickets
It was once the tram in Ljubljana (1901-1958)
Traim in Slovenian stret.
More of pictures you can see on: 

City bus
The Ljubljana Bus Station, the Ljubljana central bus hub, is located next to the Ljubljana railway station. The city bus network, run by the Ljubljana Passenger Transport (LPP)company, is Ljubljana's most widely used means of public transport. The fleet is relatively modern. The number of dedicated bus lines is limited, which can cause problem in peak hours when traffic becomes congested. Bus rides may be paid with the Urbana payment card (also used for the funicular) or with a mobile phone. Sometimes the buses are called trole (referring to trolley poles), harking back to the 1951–71 days when Ljubljana had trolleybus (trolejbus) service. There were five trolleybus lines in Ljubljana, until 1958 alongside the tram. There are numerous taxi companies in the city, but their services have been evaluated as bad.  
Another mean of public road transport in the city center is the Cavalier (Kavalir), an electric vehicle operated by LPP since May 2009. 

There are two such vehicles in Ljubljana. The ride is free and there are no stations because it can be stopped anywhere. It can carry up to five passengers; most of them are elderly people and tourist. The Cavalier drives in the car-free zone in the Ljubljana downtown. The first line links Čop StreetWolf Street and Hribar Embankment, whereas the second links Town SquareUpper Square, and Old Square. There is also a tractor with wagons decorated to look like a train for tourists in Ljubljana, linking Cyril and Methodius Square in the city center with Ljubljana Castle.

More pictures you can see on: 

There is a considerable amount of bicycle traffic in Ljubljana, especially in the warmer months of the year. It is also possible to rent a bike. Since May 2011, the Bicikelj (Official page), a self-service bicycle rental system offers the residents and visitors of Ljubljana 300 bicycles and 600 parking spots at 31 stations in the wider city center area. The daily number of rentals is around 2,500. There was a possibility to rent a bike even before the establishment of Bicikelj.
However, the conditions for cyclists in Ljubljana have been criticized as unfortunate to date. This refers to cycle lanes in poor condition and constructed in a way that motorized traffic is privileged. In contrast to other European capitals, on some of the main streets cycling is forbidden; for example, on part of Slovenska cesta (Slovene Street) and on a new link road on the Fabiani Bridge across the Ljubljanica River connecting Hrvatski trg and Roška cesta. There are also many one-way streets which therefore cannot be used as alternate routes so it is difficult to legally travel by bicycle through the city center. Through years, some prohibitions have been partially abolished by marking cycle lanes on the pavement.

The river transport on the Ljubljanica and the Sava was the main means of cargo transport to and from the city until the mid-19th century, when railroads were built. Today, the Ljubljanica is used by a number of tourist ships, with wharves under the Butchers' Bridge, at Fish Square, at Court Square, at Breg, at the Poljane Embankment, and elsewhere.
Ljubljana market, behind the Cathedral, on the right side Kresija
Photo: Viktorija Rozman

Cityscape of Ljubljana


Jože Plečnik
Edvard Ravnikar
The city architecture is a mix of styles. Despite the appearance of large buildings, especially at the city's edge, Ljubljana's historic center remains intact. Although the oldest architecture has been preserved from the Roman period, Ljubljana's downtown got its outline in the Middle Ages. After the 1511 earthquake, it was rebuilt in the Baroque style following Italian, particularly Venetian, models. After the quake in 1895, it was once again rebuilt, this time in the Vienna Secession style, which today is juxtaposed against the earlier Baroque style buildings that remain. 

The large sectors built in the inter-war period often include a personal touch by the architects Jože Plečnik and Ivan Vurnik. In the second half of the 20th century, parts of Ljubljana were redesigned by Edvard Ravnikar.

Prominent buildings:

Prešeren Square. Photo: Viktorija Rozman
The central square in Ljubljana is Prešeren Square (Prešernov trg) where the Franciscan Church of the Annunciation (Frančiškanska cerkev) is located. It is the parish church of Ljubljana - Annunciation Parish. Built between 1646 and 1660 (the belltowers following later), it replaced an older Gothic church on the same site. The layout takes the form of an early-Baroque basilica with one nave and two rows ol lateral chapels. The Baroque main altar was executed by the sculptor Francesco Robba. Much of the original frescos were ruined by the cracks in the ceiling caused by the Ljubljana earthquake in 1895. The new frescos were painted by the Slovene impressionist painter Matej Sternen.

Ljubljana Castle (Ljubljanski grad) is a medieval castle with RomanesqueGothic, and Renaissance architectural elements, located at the summit of the Castle Hill that dominates the city center. The area surrounding today's castle has been continuously inhabited since 1200 BC. The castle was built in the 12th century and was a residence of the Margraves, later the Dukes of Carniola. The castle's Outlook Tower dates to 1848; this was inhabited by a guard whose duty it was to fire cannons warning the city in case of fire or announcing important visitors or events, a function the castle still holds today. Cultural events and weddings also take place there. Since 2006, a funicular has linked the city center to the castle atop the hill.
Robba fountain.
Photo: Viktorija Rozman
The Town Hall (Mestna hišaMagistrat), located on the Town Square, is the seat of the City Municipality of Ljubljana. The original building was built in a Gothic style in 1484. Between 1717 and 1719, the building underwent a Baroque renovation with a Venetian inspiration by the architect Gregor Maček. Near the Town Hall, on Town Square, is a replica of the Robba fountain, in the Baroque style. The original has been moved into the National Gallery in 2006. Robba's fountain is decorated with an obelisk at the foot of which are three figures in white marble symbolising the three chief rivers of Carniola. It is the work of Francesco Robba, who designed numerous other Baroque statues in the city.

Cathedral. Photo: Viktorija Rozman
Ljubljana Cathedral (Ljubljanska stolnica), or Saint Nicholas's Cathedral (Stolnica svetega Nikolaja), serves the Archdiocese of Ljubljana. Easily identifiable due to its green dome and twin towers, it is located on Cyril and Methodius Square (Ciril-Metodov trg) by the nearby Ljubljana Central Market and the Town Hall. The Diocese of Ljubljana was set up in 1461. Between 1701 and 1706, the Jesuit architect Andrea Pozzo designed the Baroque church with two side chapels shaped in the form of a Latin cross. The dome was built in the center in 1841. The interior is decorated with Baroque frescos painted by Giulio Quaglio between 1703–1706 and 1721–1723.
Skyscraper. Photo: Viktorija Rozman

Nebotičnik (pronounced [nɛbɔtiːtʃniːk], "Skyscraper") is a thirteen-story building that rises to a height of 70.35 m (231 ft). It combines elements of theNeoclassical and the Art-Deco architecture. Predominantly a place of business, Nebotičnik is home to a variety of shops on the ground floor and first story, and various offices are located on floors two to five. The sixth to ninth floors are private residences. Located on the top three floors are a café, bar and observation deck. It was designed by the Slovenian architect Vladimir Šubic. Construction began in July 1930 and the building opened on 21 February 1933. It was for some time the tallest residential building in Europe.

Parks and other green spaces:

The Tivoli Park (Park Tivoli) is the largest park in Ljubljana. It was designed in 1813 by the French engineer Jean Blanchard and now covers approximately 5 km2 (1.9 sq mi). The park was laid out during the French imperial administration of Ljubljana in 1813 and named after the ParisianJardins de Tivoli. Between 1921 and 1939, it was renovated by the Slovene architect Jože Plečnik, who designed a broad central promenade, called the Jakopič Promenade (Jakopičevo sprehajališče) after the leading Slovene impressionist painter Rihard Jakopič. Within the park, there are different types of trees, flower gardens, several statues, and fountains. Several notable buildings stand in the Park, among them the Tivoli Castle, the National Museum of Contemporary History and the Tivoli Sports Hall.
The Tivoli–Rožnik Hill–Šiška Hill Landscape Park is located in the western part of the city.
The University Botanic Gardens (SloveneUniverzitetni botanični vrt Univerze v Ljubljani) stretch on 2.40 hectares (5.9 acres) next to the junction of the Gruber Canal and the Ljubljanica, to the south of the Old Town. These are the central Slovenian botanical garden and the oldest cultural, scientific, and educational organisation in the country. It started operating under the leadership of Franc Hladnik in 1810. Of over 4,500 plant species and subspecies, roughly a third is endemic to Slovenia, whereas the rest originate from other European places and other continents. The institution is a member of the international network Botanic Gardens Conservation International and cooperates with more than 270 botanical gardens all across the world.

Streets and squares:

Existing already in the 18th century, the Ljubljana central square, the Prešeren Square's modern appearance has developed since the end of the 19th century. After the 1895 Ljubljana earthquakeMax Fabiani designed the square as the hub of four streets and four banks, and in the 1980s, Edvard Ravnikar proposed the circular design and the granite block pavement. A statue of the Slovene national poet France Prešeren with a muse stands in the middle of the square. The Prešeren Statue was created by Ivan Zajec in 1905, whereas the pedestal was designed by Max Fabiani. The square and surroundings have been closed to traffic since 1 September 2007. Only a tourist train leaves Prešeren Square every day, transporting tourists to the Ljubljana Castle.
Republic Square, at first named Revolution Square, is the largest square in Ljubljana. It was designed in the second half of the 20th century by Edvard Ravnikar. Independence of Slovenia was declared here on 26 June 1991. The National Assembly Building stands at its northern side, and Cankar Hall, the largest Slovenian cultural and congress center, at the southern side. At its eastern side stands the two-storey building of Maximarket, also work of Ravnikar. It houses one of the oldest department stores in Ljubljana and a cafe, which is a popular meeting place and a place of political talks and negotiations.
Congress Square (Kongresni trg) is one of the most important centers of the city. It was built in 1821 for ceremonial purposes such as Congress of Ljubljana after which it was named. Since then it became an important center for political ceremonies, demonstrations and protests, such as the ceremony at creation of Kingdom of Yugoslavia, ceremony of liberation of Belgrade, protests against Yugoslav authority in 1988 etc. The square also houses several important buildings, such as University of LjubljanaSlovenian PhilharmonicUrsuline Church of the Holy Trinity, and Slovenska matica. Star Park (Park Zvezda) is located in the center of the square. In 2010 and 2011, the square was heavily renovated and is now mostly closed to road traffic on ground area, however there are five floors for commercial purposes and a parking lot located underground.
Čop Street (Čopova ulica) is a major thoroughfare in the center of Ljubljana. The street is named after Matija Čop, an early 19th-century literary figure and close friend of the Slovene Romantic poetFrance Prešeren. It leads from the Main Post Office (Glavna pošta) on Slovenian Street (Slovenska cesta) downward to Prešeren Square and is lined with bars and stores, including the oldest McDonald's restaurant in Slovenia. It is a pedestrian zone and regarded as the capital's central promenade.


The Triple Bridge over the Ljubljanica River in the city center.
The most notable Ljubljana bridges are the Triple Bridge (Tromostovje), the Trnovo Bridge (Trnovski most), the Dragon Bridge (Zmajski most), the Hradecky Bridge (SloveneHradeckega most), and the Butchers' Bridge (Mesarski most). The Trnovo Bridge crosses the Gradaščica, whereas the others cross the Ljubljanica.
Plan for triple bridge - Jože Plečnik .
The Triple Bridge
The Triple Bridge is a group of three bridges, connecting two parts of Ljubljana's downtown, located on both banks of Ljubljanica. There was originally only one bridge, which linked Central Europe and the Balkans. In order to prevent a 1842 stone arch bridge from being a bottleneck, two additional pedestrian bridges on either side of the central one were added in 1932 according to the Plečnik's 1929 design. He decorated them with large stonebalusters and lamps. There are two staircases, leading to terraces above the river, the banks with poplars, and the Ljubljana fish market. Two Plečnik's urban axes of Ljubljana, the water axis and the Ljubljana Castle–Rožnik Axis, cross at the bridge.

The Trnovo Bridge
The Trnovo Bridge is the most prominent object of Plečnik's renovation of the banks of the Gradaščica. It is located in front of the Trnovo Church to the south of the city center. It connects the neighborhoods of Krakovo and Trnovo, the oldest Ljubljana suburbs, known for their market gardens and cultural events. It was built between 1929 and 1932. It is distinguished by its width and two rows of birches that it bears, because it was meant to serve as a public space in front of the church. Each corner of the bridge is capped with a small pyramid, a signature motif of Plečnik's, whereas the mid-span features a pair of Art-Deco male sculptures. There is also a statue of Saint John the Baptist on the bridge, the patron of the Trnovo Church. It was designed by Nikolaj Pirnat.
Dragon Bridge.
Photo: Viktorija Rozman

The Dragon Bridge
The Dragon Bridge, built by Josef Melan and designed by Jurij Zaninović, is often regarded as the most beautiful bridge produced by the Vienna Secession. It is located in the northeast of Vodnik Square (Vodnikov trg) It is a triple-hinged arch bridge and has a span of 33.34 meters (109 ft 5 in). When opened in 1901, it had the third largest arch in Europe. Today, it is protected as a technical monument. The chief attraction of the bridge are four sheet-copper dragon statues, which stand on pedestals at its four corners and have become a symbol of the city.

The Hradecky Bridge
The Hradecky Bridge is one of the first hinged bridges in the world, the first and the only preserved cast iron bridge in Slovenia and one of its most highly valued technical achievements. It has been situated on an extension of Hren Street (Hrenova ulica), between the Krakovo Embankment (Krakovski nasip) and the Gruden Embankment (Grudnovo nabrežje), connecting the Trnovo District and the Prule neighbourhood in the Center District. The Hradecky Bridge was manufactured according to the plans of the senior engineer Johann Hermann from Vienna in the Auersperg iron foundry in Dvor near Žužemberk and installed in Ljubljana in 1867, at the location of today's Cobblers' Bridge.

The Butchers' Bridge
The Butchers' Bridge is a footbridge crossing the river Ljubljanica River. It connects Ljubljana Central Market (Osrednja ljubljanska tržnica) and thePetkovšek embankment (Petkovškovo nabrežje). It was officially opened in July 2010 and completes Plečnik's plans from the 1930s. The largest sculptures on the bridge, created by the sculptor Jakov Brdar, represent figures from Ancient Greek mythology and Biblical stories. Shortly after the opening, padlocks of couples in love started appearing on its steel wires, symbolizing declarations of eternal love, a phenomenon similar to the one on the Parisian Pont des Arts.

History of Ljubljana



Around 2000 BC, the Ljubljana Marshes in the immediate vicinity of Ljubljana were settled by people living in pile dwellings. These lake-dwelling people lived through hunting, fishing and primitive agriculture. To get around the marshes, they used dugout canoes made by cutting out the inside of tree trunks. Their archeological remains, nowadays in the Municipality of Ig, have been designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site since June 2011, in the common nomination of six Alpine states.[13]
Later, the area remained a transit point for numerous tribes and peoples, among them Illyrians, followed by a mixed nation of Celts and Illyrians called the Iapydes, and then in the 3rd century BC a Celtic tribe, the Taurisci.


Main article: Emona
Ljubljana from IV - XVIII century.
Photo: Viktorija Rozman
Around 50 BC, the Romans built a military encampment that later became a permanent settlement called Iulia Aemona. This entrenched fort was occupied by the Legio XV Apollinaris. In 452, it was destroyed by the Huns under Attila's orders,[16] and later by the Ostrogoths and the Lombards.[18] Emona housed 5,000–6,000 inhabitants and played an important role during numerous battles. Its plastered brick houses, painted in different colors, were already connected to a drainage system.[16] In the 6th century, the ancestors of the Slovenes moved in. In the 9th century, the Slovenes fell under Frankish domination, while experiencing frequent Magyar raids. Not much is known about the area during the settlement of Slavs in the period between the downfall of Emona and the Early Middle Ages.

Middle Ages:

The medieval Ljubljana's oldest mentioning was found in 2000 at the occasion of 500 anniversary of House of Gorizia's dissolution in a document from the Udine Cathedral archive, dating from 1112 to 1125, that cited Ljubljana Castle (castrum Leibach) and twenty farms surrounding it as a gift received by Patriarchate of Aquileia from a nobleman Rudolf of Tarcento. Whereas at the time, Ljubljana Castle was in ownership of the Spanheim family, the surrounding agrarian estate belonged to a number of noblemen.
When exactly Ljubljana acquired its town rights is not known, but it was no later than 1220.
At around 1200, the right to hold a market was granted to the Old Square (Stari trg), which was at the time one of the three districts Ljubljana originated from, that additionally included area called "Town" built around the predecessor of present-day Ljubljana Cathedral on one side of Ljubljanica river, and New Square (Novi trg) at the other side. The Franciscan Bridge, a predecessor of present-day Triple Bridge, and the Butchers' Bridge connected the walled areas with wood-made buildings. Seven fires erupted in the city during the Middle Ages. Artisans organized themselves into guilds. The Teutonic Knights, the Conventual Franciscans, and the Franciscans settled in the town.
In 1327, the Ljubljana's "Jewish Quarter"—now only the name of Ljubljana "Jewish street" is a remainder of it—with a synagogue was established, until Emperor Maximilian I in 1515 succumbed to medieval antisemitism and expelled Jews from Ljubljana, for which he demanded a certain payment from the town.
In 1382, in front of Ljubljana St. Bartholomew's church, located in Šiška, at the time a village, a peace treaty between the Republic of Venice and Leopold III of Habsburg was signed.
Ruled by King Ottokar II of Bohemia from 1270, Ljubljana was— together with Carniola region the city belonged to—conquered in 1278 by Rudolph of Habsburg and administered by the Counts of Gorizia from 1279 until 1335, when it became the capital city of Carniola. Renamed Laibach, it would be owned by the House of Habsburg until 1797.

Early modern:

In the 15th century, Ljubljana became recognized for its art, particularly painting and sculpture. The Roman Rite Catholic Diocese of Ljubljana was established in 1461 and the Church of St. Nicholas became the diocesan cathedral. After an earthquake in 1511, the city was rebuilt in Renaissance style and a new wall was built around it. Wooden buildings were forbidden after a large fire at New Square in 1524.
In the 16th century, the population of Ljubljana numbered 5,000, 70% of whom spoke Slovene as their first language, with most of the rest using German. The first secondary school, public library and printing house opened in Ljubljana. Ljubljana became an important educational center.
From 1529 to 1599, Ljubljana had an active Slovene Protestant community until their expulsion after which Catholic Bishop Tomaž Hren ordered the burning of eight cartloads of Protestant books in public marking the beginning of the Counter-Reformation.

Ljubljana in 1745. Photo: Viktorija Rozman
In 1597, Jesuits arrived in the city, followed in 1606 by Capuchins, to eradicate Protestantism. Only 5% of all the residents of Ljubljana at the time were of Catholic confession, so it took quite a while to make it again Catholic. Jesuits organized the first theatrical productions in the town, fostered the development of Baroque music and established Catholic schools. In the middle and the second half of the 17th century, foreign architects built and renovated numerous monasteries, churches, and palaces in Ljubljana and introduced the Baroque architecture. In 1702, the Ursulines settled in the town, where, the following year, they opened the first public school for girls in the Slovene Lands. Some years later, the construction of the Ursuline Church of the Holy Trinity started. In 1779, St. Christopher's Cemetery replaced the cemetery at St. Peter's Church as the main Ljubljana cemetery.

Late Modern:
Ljubljana in 1842. Photo: Viktorija Rozman

The Napoleonic interlude saw Ljubljana as "Laybach" become, from 1809 to 1813, the capital of the Illyrian Provinces. In 1815, the city became Austrian again and from 1816 to 1849 was the administrative center of the Kingdom of Illyria in the Austrian Empire. In 1821 it hosted the Congress of Laibach, which fixed European political borders for years to come. The first train arrived in 1849 from Vienna and in 1857 the line was extended to Trieste.
In 1895, Ljubljana, then a city of 31,000, suffered a serious earthquake measuring 6.1 degrees Richter and 8–9 degrees MCS. Some 10% of its 1,400 buildings were destroyed, although casualties were light. During the reconstruction that followed, a number of districts were rebuilt in the Vienna Secession style. Public electric lighting appeared in the city in 1898. The rebuilding period between 1896 and 1910 is referred to as the "revival of Ljubljana" because of architectural changes from which a great deal of the city dates back to today and for reform of urban administration, health, education and tourism that followed. The rebuilding and quick modernization of the city were led by the mayor Ivan Hribar.
In 1918, following the end of World War I and the dissolution of Austria-Hungary, the region joined the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. In 1929, Ljubljana became the capital of the Drava Banovina, a Yugoslav province.
In 1941, during World War II, Fascist Italy occupied the city, and on 3 May 1941 made Lubiana the capital of an Italian Provincia di Lubiana with the former Yugoslav general Leon Rupnik as mayor. After the Italian capitulation, Nazi Germany with SS-general Erwin Rösener and Friedrich Rainer took control in 1943 but formally the city remained the capital of an Italian province until 9 May 1945. In Ljubljana, the occupying forces established strongholds and command centers of Quisling organisations, the Anti-Communist Volunteer Militia under Italy and the Home Guard under German occupation. The city was surrounded by over 30 kilometers (19 mi) of barbed wire to prevent co-operation between the resistance movement that operated within and outside the fence. Since 1985, a commemorative path has ringed the city where this iron fence once stood. Postwar reprisals resulted in a number of mass graves in Ljubljana.
After World War II, Ljubljana became the capital of the Socialist Republic of Slovenia, part of Communist Yugoslavia, a status it retained until Slovenia became independent in 1991.


Ljubljana remains the capital of independent Slovenia, which entered the European Union in 2004.


ponedeljek, 18. november 2013

Some information about Ljubljana

Here are a few words about the place, origin of the name and symbol of Ljubljana.

©Viktorija Rozman
Coordinates: 46°03′20″N 14°30′30″E
Country: Slovenia Slovenia
First mention: 1112–1125
Town rights: around 1220
Mayor: Zoran Janković (PS)
 • Total: 163.8 km2 (63.2 sq mi)
 • Elevation295 m (968 ft)
Population: (1 January 2013)
 • Total: 274,826
 • Density: 1,678/km2 (4,350/sq mi)
Time zone: CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST): CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code: 1000
Area code(s): 01 (1 if calling from abroad)
Vehicle Registration: LJ

Ljubljana (locally: [ljubˈljana] ( listen)GermanLaibachItalianLubianaLatinLabacum or Aemona) is the capital and largest city of Slovenia. It is located in the heart of the country in the Ljubljana Basin, and is the center of the City Municipality of Ljubljana. With approximately 280,000 inhabitants, it is classified as the only Slovenian large town. Throughout its history, it has been influenced by its geographic position at the crossroads of the Slavic world with the Germanic and Latin cultures. For centuries, Ljubljana was the capital of the historical region of Carniola. Now it is the cultural, educational, economic, political and administrative center of Slovenia, independent since 1991. Its central geographic location within Slovenia, transport connections, concentration of industry, scientific and research institutions and cultural tradition are contributing factors to its leading position.
The origin of the city's name is unclear. In the Middle Ages, both the river and the town were also known by the German name Laibach, which was in official use until 1918. For most scholars, the problem has been in how to connect the Slovene and the German names. The origin from theSlavic ljublyoob 'to love, like' was in 2007 supported as the most probable by the linguist Tijmen Pronk, a specialist in comparative Indo-European linguistics and Slovene dialectology from the University of Leiden. He supported the thesis that the name of the river derived from the name of the settlement. The linguist Silvo Torkar, who specializes in Slovene personal and place names, argued at the same place for the thesis that the name Ljubljana derives from Ljubija, the original name of the Ljubljanica River flowing through it, itself derived from the Old Slavic male name Ljubovid, "the one of a kind appearance". The name Laibach, he claimed, was actually a hybrid of German and Slovene and derived from the same personal name.
he symbol of the city is the Ljubljana Dragon. It is depicted on the top of the tower of the Ljubljana Castle in the Ljubljana coat-of-arms and on the Ljubljanica-crossing Dragon Bridge (Ljubljana)(Zmajski most). It symbolizes power, courage, and greatness. There are several explanations on the origin of the Ljubljana Dragon. According to the celebrated Greek legend, the Argonauts on their return home after having taken the Golden Fleece found a large lake surrounded by a marsh between the present-day towns of Vrhnika and Ljubljana. It is there that Jason struck down a monster. This monster has become the dragon that today is present on the city coat of arms and flag.It is historically more believable that the dragon was adopted from Saint George, the patron of the Ljubljana Castle chapel built in the 15th century. In the legend of Saint George, the dragon represents the old ancestral paganism overcome by Christianity. According to another explanation, related to the second, the dragon was at first only a decoration above the city coat of arms. In Baroque, it became part of the coat of arms and in the 19th and especially the 20th century, it outstripped the tower and other elements.